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Acupressure can also be used as a self- and tea have been shown to reduce the severity of asthma treatment for asthma attacks and prevention discount levitra super active 40mg visa erectile dysfunction cure video. Tea points discount levitra super active 20mg amex erectile dysfunction causes heart disease, used to stimulate breathing, can be easily found also contains minute amounts of theophylline, a major on the chest. Ayurvedic (traditional East Indian) the muscles that run horizontally about an inch below the medicine recommends the herb Tylophora asthmatica. The points can be pressed in a circular manner Mind/body approaches with the thumbs, while the head is allowed to hang for- ward and the patient takes slow, deep breaths. Reflexolo- Mind/body medicine has demonstrated that psy- gy also uses particular acupressure points on the hands chological factors play a complex role in asthma. Mind/body tech- niques strive to reduce stress and help asthma sufferers Other treatments manage the psychological component of their condition. Erik Peper at the Institute for Holis- Aromatherapists recommend eucalyptus, lavender, tic Healing Studies in San Francisco used biofeedback, rosemary, and chamomile as fragrances that promote a treatment method that uses monitors to reveal physio- free breathing. In Japan, a common treatment for asthma logical information to patients, to teach relaxation and is administering cold baths. A 1993 study by Kaiser Perma- ferers as well, as they strive to open and increase circula- nente in Northern California worked with 323 adults tion in the chest area. Half the patients got Arsenicum album, Kali carbonicum, Natrum sul- standard care while the other half participated in support phuricum, and Aconite. The support group patients had cut their asthma- related doctor visits in half after two years. Some other Allopathic treatment mind/body techniques used for asthma include relax- ation methods, meditation, hypnotherapy,, mental Allopaths recommend that asthma patients should imaging, psychotherapy, and visualization. Montelukast sodium (Singu- blesome symptoms, to maintain lung function as close to lair) is a drug taken daily that is used to help prevent normal as possible, and to allow patients to pursue their asthma attacks rather than to treat an acute attack. The 2004, the FDA approved an oral granule formula of Sin- best drug therapy is that which controls asthmatic symp- gulair for young children. In a typical course of immunotherapy, increasing The chief methylxanthine drug is theophylline. It amounts of the allergen are injected over a period of may exert some anti-inflammatory effect and is especial- three to five years, so that the body can build up an effec- ly helpful in controlling nighttime symptoms of asthma. There is a risk that this treatment When, for some reason, a patient cannot use an inhaler may itself cause the airways to become narrowed and to maintain long-term control, sustained-release theo- bring on an asthmatic attack. The blood levels of the astic about immunotherapy, although some studies have drug must be measured periodically, as too high a dose shown that it reduces asthmatic symptoms caused by ex- can cause an abnormal heart rhythm or convulsions. They are the drugs of Managing asthmatic attacks choice for relieving sudden attacks of asthma and for A severe asthma attack should be treated as quickly preventing attacks from being triggered by exercise. It is most important for a patient suffering an Some agonists, such as albuterol, act mainly in lung cells acute attack to be given extra oxygen. These necessary to use a mechanical ventilator to help the pa- drugs generally start acting within minutes, but their ef- tient breathe. A course of centration of albuterol was approved by the FDA for steroid therapy, given after the attack is over, will make a children ages two to 12. Steroids are drugs that resemble natural body hor- Long-term allopathic treatment for asthma is based mones. They block inflammation and are effective in re- on inhaling a beta-receptor agonist using a special in- lieving symptoms of asthma. Patients must be instructed in inhalation for a long period, asthma attacks become less proper use of an inhaler to be sure that it will deliver the frequent as the airways become less sensitive to aller- right amount of drug. Steroids are the strongest medicine for asthma, and for several weeks or months, it is worth trying to cut can control even severe cases over the long term and down on drug treatment, but this tapering must be done maintain good lung function. The last drug added should be the first to be cause numerous side effects, including bleeding from the reduced. Patients should be seen every one to six stomach, loss of calcium from bones, cataracts in the months, depending on the frequency of attacks. Patients using steroids for treatment at home, rather than in a hospital, makes for lengthy periods may also have problems with wound minimal delay and helps the patient to gain a sense of healing, may gain weight, and may suffer mental prob- control over the disease. Besides being how to monitor their symptoms so that they will know inhaled, steroids may be taken by mouth or injected, to when an attack is starting. They Leukotriene modifiers are among a newer type of also should have a written plan to follow if symptoms drug that can be used in place of steroids, for older chil- suddenly become worse, including how to adjust their dren or adults who have a mild degree of persistent asth- medication and when to seek medical help. They work by counteracting leukotrienes, which are tense treatment is necessary, it should be continued for substances released by white blood cells in the lung that several days. When deciding whether a patient should be cause the air passages to constrict and promote mucus hospitalized, the physician must take into account the pa- secretion. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 141 Expected results KEY TERMS Most patients with asthma respond well when the.

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It is also employed in the treatment of cidioidomycosis buy cheap levitra super active 20 mg on line buy erectile dysfunction pills online uk, and chromomycosis are better treated infections with cutaneous dermatophytes safe levitra super active 40 mg most popular erectile dysfunction pills. Ketoconazole is inef- tions in the epidermis and mucous membranes; less fective in the treatment of cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, than 10% of the drug is systemically absorbed. Candidemia is best treated with flu- though clotrimazole is generally well tolerated, local ab- conazole or amphotericin B. Adverse Effects Nausea, vomiting, and anorexia occur commonly with ketoconazole, especially when high doses are pre- VORICONAZOLE scribed. Epigastric distress can be reduced by taking ke- Voriconazole (Vfend), a derivative of fluconazole, is a toconazole with food. Liver enzyme elevations dur- second-generation triazole that has improved antifun- gal activity against Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. Like fluconazole, voriconazole has high nificant reduction in testosterone synthesis and blocks oral bioavailability and good cerebrospinal fluid pene- the adrenal response to corticotropin. Gynecomastia, tration, but unlike fluconazole, it undergoes extensive impotence, reduced sperm counts, and diminished li- hepatic metabolism and is highly protein bound. No sig- bido can occur in men, and prolonged drug use can re- nificant amount of bioactive drug is excreted into the sult in irregular menses in women. Because Drug Interactions of its low toxicity profile, this drug may gain importance Both rifampin and isoniazid lower plasma ketoconazole in the chronic treatment of infections with invasive di- levels, and concomitant administration should be avoided. When it is used as monotherapy, resistance and (Femstat) is an effective topical agent for vaginal can- clinical failure are common. Potential mechanisms for didiasis; terconazole (Terazol) is effective in the treat- drug resistance include decreased fungal cell mem- ment of vaginal candidiasis; and econazole (Spectazole) brane permeability and reduced levels of fungal is useful in the treatment of superficial fungal infections cytosine deaminase. Combination therapy with am- of the skin, achieving high tissue levels in the stratum photericin B and flucytosine in the treatment of corneum. Oxiconazole nitrate (Oxistat) and sulconazole cryptococcal meningitis and deep-seated Candida in- nitrate (Exelderm) are topical imidazole derivatives fections, such as septic arthritis and meningitis, permits available for the treatment of dermatophyte infections reduced dosing of amphotericin B and prevents the and pityriasis (tinea versicolor). When higher doses of is available without a prescription for the treatment of amphotericin B are used, combination therapy with dermatophyte infections and candidiasis. Adverse Effects FLUCYTOSINE When 5-FC is prescribed alone to patients with normal renal function, skin rash, epigastric distress, diarrhea, Chemistry and Mechanism of Action and liver enzyme elevations can occur. When it is pre- scribed to patients with renal insufficiency or to patients Flucytosine (5-flucytosine, 5-FC; Ancoban) is a fluori- receiving concurrent amphotericin B therapy, blood lev- nated pyrimidine analogue of cytosine that was origi- els of 5-FC may rise, and bone marrow toxicity leading nally synthesized for possible use as an antineoplastic to leukopenia and thrombocytopenia is common. Because of baseline leukope- quently, 5-FC metabolites interfere with fungal DNA nia, 5-FC is often not tolerated by end-stage HIV- synthesis by inhibiting thymidylate synthetase. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, CAPSOFUNGIN and Excretion Capsofungin (Cancidas) is a semisynthetic lipopeptide 5-FC is well absorbed orally, with greater than 90% known as an echinocandin, the first representative of a bioavailability. The serum half-life is 3 to 5 hours, with new class of antifungal agents that inhibit the synthesis of serum levels peaking 4 to 6 hours after a single dose. The -(1,3)-D-glucan, a cell wall component of filamentous drug is widely distributed in body fluids, with cere- fungi. The drug gillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus ter- also penetrates well into urine, aqueous humor, and reus; it is approved for the treatment of invasive as- bronchial secretions. Minimal serum protein binding al- pergillosis in patients not responding to other antifungal lows more than 90% of each dose to be excreted in the agents, such as amphotericin B, lipid formulations of am- urine; significant dosage reductions are required in the photericin B, and itraconazole. Adverse effects are mediated through histamine re- Clinical Uses lease; they include facial flushing, rash, fever, and pruri- Flucytosine has significant antifungal activity against tis. Griseofulvin is hydrochloride) are reversible noncompetitive inhibitors metabolized in the liver and has a half-life of 24 to 36 of the fungal enzyme squalene monooxygenase (squa- hours. The drug binds to keratin precursor cells and lene 2,3-epoxidase), which coverts squalene to lanos- newly synthesized keratin in the stratum corneum of terol. With a decrease in lanosterol production, ergos- the skin, hair, and nails, stopping the progression of der- terol production is also diminished, affecting fungal cell matophyte infection. These agents gener- In the treatment of ringworm of the beard, scalp, ally exhibit fungicidal activity against dermatophytes and other skin surfaces, 4 to 6 weeks of therapy is often and fungistatic activity against yeasts. Therapy failure may be to the result of an in- Naftifine hydrochloride (Naftin) is available for top- correct diagnosis; superficial candidiasis, which may re- ical use only in the treatment of cutaneous dermato- semble a dermatophyte infection, does not respond to phyte and Candida infections; it is as effective as topical griseofulvin treatment. Headache is phic fungi, but its clinical utility in treating infections common with initiation of therapy. It is pecially in patients with acute intermittent porphyria), used most commonly in the treatment of onychomyco- dermatitis, and gastrointestinal distress also occur. Although terbinafine has little effect on ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme systems, it does mini- Ciclopirox olamine (Loprox) is a pyridone derivative mally enhance cyclosporine clearance. Oral terbinafine available for the treatment of cutaneous dermatophyte is generally well tolerated but occasionally causes gas- infections, cutaneous C. Tolnaftate (Tinactin, others) is a nonprescription an- GRISEOFULVIN tifungal agent effective in the topical treatment of der- Griseofulvin (Gris-PEG, Grifulvin, Grisactin, Fulvicin)is matophyte infections and tinea. Produced by the still available include undecylenic acid (Desenex, oth- mold Penicillium griseofulvin, this agent inhibits fungal ers). Used in the treatment of topical dermatophytes, growth by binding to the microtubules responsible for undecylenic acid is fungistatic, requires prolonged ad- mitotic spindle formation, leading to defective cell wall ministration, and is associated with a high relapse rate.

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The recommended dosages are 1 order 40mg levitra super active with visa erectile dysfunction nofap,000-3 generic levitra super active 20 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction clinic,000 mg of Poke should be taken as a last resort. A compress is a form of hydrothera- er, there are many other herbs that can be purchased as py that starts by placing a warm washcloth on the neck. A person can use a vaporizer for Then a long piece of wool flannel such as a scarf is relief by inhaling steam. The flannel is secured izer is a boiling pot of water with herbs or essential oils with a safety pin and remains in place for at least 30 added. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1183 Reflexology KEY TERMS Reflexology is a healing method that involves the. Roots, bark, and seeds are used in throat, lung, chest, lymphatic system, and diaphragm decoctions; boiling the herbs brings out their points on both feet. Homeopathy is a healing method that is based on Tincture—A method of preserving herbs in alcohol. The potency of a remedy can also be expressed as “c,” the number of times one part of the remedy was diluted in 99 parts of a dilutant. Prevention Homeopathic remedies for laryngitis include: Prevention of laryngitis is the same as for any upper • Aconite (6x or 12x). People should wash their hands very start of a cold or when the voice is lost and the frequently and thoroughly, and should avoid contact with person has a dry cough. However, even with relatively after four or five hours, another remedy such as spongia good hygiene practices, most people will get about five tosta is taken. Resting the voice is important, particularly for peo- ple like teachers, politicians, or actors who talk for long • Arnica (6x or 12x). Before giving a lengthy speech or attending an ex- citing championship game, herbal remedies can be used Allopathic treatment preventively to soothe the larynx. If anxiety provokes laryngitis, a person should practice a relaxation tech- Treatment of a simple, viral laryngitis relieves the nique or exercise to reduce stress. Gargling with warm salt water, using pain In all cases, smoking should be avoided. Since alcohol relievers such as acetaminophen, using a vaporizer to can irritate the throat, consumption may need to be limited. Resources For an infant who is clearly struggling for air, a doc- BOOKS Albright, Peter. The Complete Book of Complementary Thera- tor may put in an artificial airway for a short period of pies. Emmaus, PA: Rodale When a doctor is consulted, antibiotics may be pre- Press, Inc. The Family Guide to Preventing and Treat- The prognosis for people with laryngitis is excellent ing 100 Infectious Diseases. Liz Swain Laughter therapy see Humor therapy Lavender Description Lavender is a hardy perennial in the Lamiaciae, or mint, family. There are many species of lavendula which vary somewhat in appearance and aromatic quality. Taking just a few whiffs of this sweet- This fragrant, bushy shrub has been widely cultivat- smelling herb is said to dispel dizziness. The tiny, tubular, mauve-blue blos- women in labor clutched sprigs of lavender to bring soms grow in whorls of six to ten flowers along square, added courage and strength to the task of childbearing. These flower decoction of the flower may be used as a feminine spikes stretch upward beyond the 12-18 inch (3. The sachets, may be used to repel moths and to scent cloth- blossoms are well liked by bees and a good source of ing, or may be lit like incense to scent a room. The needle-like, evergreen, downy leaves are a of its fumigant properties, the herb was hung in the home light, silver-gray. They are lanceolate, opposite, and ses- to repel flies and mosquitoes, and strewn about to sani- sile, and grow from a branched stem. It can be taken in a mild infusion, or can be rubbed on the temples, General use or sniffed like smelling salts to provide relief from Lavender is best known and loved for its fragrance. Lavender oil is antiseptic, and The herb has been used since ancient times in perfumery. In high GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1185 doses, it can kill many common bacteria such as typhoid, fresh flowers should be added and the process repeated diphtheria, streptococcus, and pneumococcus, according to until the oil has the desired aromatic strength. The essential oil has also been used as a extract can be safely used internally to treat migraines, folk treatment for the bite of some venomous snakes. A few drops on a sugar cube When used in hydrotherapy as part of an aromatic, can speed headache relief. Externally, a small amount of Epsom salt bath, the essential oils of some species will lavender oil, rubbed on sore joints, can relieve rheuma- soothe tired nerves and relieve the pain of neuralgia. The essential oil has also been used to minimize are also used topically on burns and have been shown to scar tissue when applied to burned skin. It is also a fine addition to a foot bath for Lavender sachet: Dried lavender blossoms and sore feet.

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