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This latter point is important because early continuous IV infusion MRD response was a strong predictor for event-free survival in the Immunoconjugates Increased efﬁcacy Potential toxicity due to the previous COG relapsed ALL trial and the kinetic pattern of MRD may conjugate: hematologic/ also be predictive of longer-term outcomes in relapsed ALL order 1.5 mg lozol with visa blood pressure up heart rate down. Therefore buy lozol 2.5mg blood pressure negative feedback, liver/VOD (calicheamicin) longer follow-up of these patients will be important. Thirty-two evaluable and cytoreduction prior to eligible patients were treated (median age of 41 years, range 20-68). CD19 is a type I transmem- refractory, and 4 patients (13%) had undergone a prior AHCT. The brane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily and regulates response rate was 45%, including 8 CRs and 5 CRs with incomplete B-cell fate and differentiation through modulation of the B-cell count recovery (CRi). MRD information was present in only 5 of 13 receptor (Table 3). No additional class of BiTE antibodies and combines a CD3-binding site for T toxicities attributed to antibody were noted. However, the ﬁrst dose cells and a CD19-binding site for B cells. The agent engages T cells of epratuzumab was given on day 7 to decrease the tumor burden for directed lysis of CD19 target cells. This CR/CRi rate was induce perforin-mediated death of the target cell. In patients with MRD-positive ALL, the median latter group of patients was more heavily pretreated, the signiﬁ- time to relapse was 4-5 months. IntReALL, an lineage ALL in complete hematologic remission were eligible if ongoing randomized study of epratuzumab in combination with they expressed the pre-B phenotype and were either molecularly chemotherapy in relapsed pediatric ALL, will hopefully better refractory (ie, had never achieved MRD-negative status) or had a deﬁne the role of this antibody for this disease. Alemtuzumab, a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, Blinatumomab was administered to 21 patients as a 4-week has demonstrated signiﬁcant activity in chronic lymphocytic leuke- continuous IV infusion at a dose of 15 g/m2/d. As a single agent, alemtuzumab has demonstrated limited 47 years and 7 patients had poor-risk cytogenetics (5 were Ph and 2 activity in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and ALL (CR rate were mixed-lineage leukemia positive). The most common adverse events (AEs) therapy (CALGB 19802) in adult patients with newly diagnosed were pyrexia, chills, and low immunoglobulin levels. Two CNS events duration, overall survival, and clearance of MRD. Alemtuzumab occurred: 1 seizure and 1 episode of syncope. In follow-up, there was dose escalated to a maximum of 30 mg subcutaneously 3 times was continued ampliﬁcation of the T-cell effector memory subset. Longer follow-up of this four patients were enrolled in the phase 1 trial; their median age was trial is now available and has demonstrated impressive results. Seventeen patients With a median follow-up of 33 months, the relapse-free survival had evaluable cytogenetics: 5 favorable, 8 intermediate, and 2 poor rate is 61%. The nonhematologic toxicities were mild; hematologic remission. However, even more exciting, 6 of 11 however, 4 patients developed grade 3-4 myelosuppression and 4 patients not proceeding to transplantation remain in remission. Serial MRD measure- A subsequent trial has evaluated blinatumomab in morphologically ments were performed by quantitative clone-speciﬁc PCR in 11 27 relapsed/refractory ALL. In this trial, blinatumomab was adminis- cases and demonstrated a median 1 log decrease in MRD in the 20 22 tered as a continuous infusion for 28 days, which was followed by a and 30 mg dosing cohorts. The dosing for the ﬁrst week was 5 g/m /d because weeks after the last dose was administered. With a median 27 of concern for infusion reactions with active disease. The majority follow-up of 51 months at last presentation, the median disease-free of AEs were grade 1-2 (pyrexia: 67%; headaches 33%), with 7 grade survival was 53 months and the median overall survival was 55 22 3 or higher AEs occurring in 5 patients (infection, seizures, months, which is impressive. A phase 2 trial studying 70 27 decreased platelets). Responders were allowed to receive 3 additional patients has completed accrual and the results are awaited additional cycles of therapy. As of the last report, 36 patients had to determine the efﬁcacy and toxicity of this approach. Seventeen patients had of strategies such as CMV prophylaxis to decrease toxicities will be achieved CR or CR with partial hematologic recovery and MRD important if this approach demonstrates promising results. BiTE antibodies are a novel class of bispeciﬁc single-chain antibod- This latter mechanism of resistance is a concern with the develop- ies that retarget cytotoxic T lymphocytes at preselected surface ment of antibody-targeted therapies and approaching this mecha- antigens on tumor cells. Blinatumomab Of the various novel therapeutics, blinatumomab is one of the most CD19 is the most commonly expressed antigen in pre-B-ALL and promising. Ultimately, moving blinatumomab to the upfront setting has the highest density of expression. The US Intergroup Hematology 2013 133 (E1910) is planning a trial of chemotherapy with and without blinatu- activity in cell line and patient samples. In a pediatric study, 3 of 17 momab in adults with newly diagnosed ALL to help address this ALL patients achieved a CR.
Targeted immune modulators 51 of 195 Final Update 3 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Ankylosing Spondylitis The following drugs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: adalimumab 1.5 mg lozol amex arrhythmia bradycardia, etanercept order 2.5 mg lozol overnight delivery blood pressure kit reviews, golimumab, and infliximab. We did not find any head-to-head trials of biologics for ankylosing spondylitis. We located one systematic review and meta-analysis that presented pooled results from nine randomized, 157 placebo-controlled trials of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. In addition we located four randomized placebo-controlled trials that were not included in the systematic review as they 158,159 160 have been published more recently: two assessed etanercept, one assessed golimumab, 161 and one assessed infliximab. We did not detect any studies on abatacept, alefacept, anakinra, certolizumab pegol, natalizumab, rituximab, tocilizumab, or ustekinumab. We did not include studies on early ankylosing spondylitis (nonradiological axial spondyloarthritis). Summary of the findings No direct evidence on the comparative effectiveness of targeted immune modulators for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis exists (Table 10). Good-to-fair evidence exists for the general efficacy of adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, and infliximab compared with placebo. In addition, 158,159 we located four newer randomized placebo-controlled trials: two assessed etanercept, one 160 161 assessed golimumab, and one assessed infliximab. Overall, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, and infliximab are statistically significantly more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Treatment effects are large and consistent across studies. Study populations and outcome measures All patients suffered from active ankylosing spondylitis and were diagnosed based on the 171 modified New York criteria. Disease duration and concomitant treatments varied across studies. Most patients used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in addition to the study medication. Most trials allowed corticosteroids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs as 158-161,165-168,172-174 concomitant treatments. Patients in two of the infliximab trials were permitted 169,170 to take only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in addition to the study drug. One study 169 examined the efficacy of infliximab in patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis. Patients with an autoimmune disease other than ankylosing spondylitis, spinal fusion, a history of active listeriosis or mycobacterial infection, or recent antibiotic treatment were generally excluded from studies. Most trials assessed response rates as defined by the Assessments in Ankylosing 175 Spondylitis Working Group. This scale combines measures of global disease activity with functional capacity, pain, and acute phase laboratory parameters (see Appendix D). In addition, the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index was frequently assessed. Sponsorship All trials, except for the systematic review, were funded by the pharmaceutical industry. Targeted immune modulators 52 of 195 Final Update 3 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Detailed assessment: Direct evidence on the comparative effectiveness We did not find any head-to-head trials for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Detailed assessment: Indirect evidence on the comparative effectiveness One systematic review attempted to provide indirect evidence on the comparative effectiveness 157 of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab for adults with ankylosing spondylitis. The analysis used results from 1611 patients with ankylosing spondylitis comparing adalimumab, etanercept, or infliximab compared with placebo. We excluded the adjusted indirect comparisons portion of the meta-analysis because of poor quality: the heterogeneity amongst the component studies was too high to provide reliable results. Detailed assessment: Evidence on the general efficacy Due to the lack of head-to-head trials, we reviewed placebo-controlled trials. We included one 157 systematic review that provided a meta-analysis of pooled results from two trials of 162,163 164-168 169,170 adalimumab, five trials of etanercept, and two trials of infliximab. In addition, 158,159 we located four newer randomized placebo-controlled trials: two assessed etanercept, one 160 161 assessed golimumab, and one assessed infliximab. Overall, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, and infliximab were statistically significantly more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. We summarized evidence on the general efficacy of targeted immune modulators for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Table 10. This, however, does not provide evidence on the comparative efficacy and tolerability of targeted immune modulators. Adalimumab 157 We identified one high-quality meta-analysis on the general efficacy of adalimumab. The study included information on two trials of adult patients with moderate-to-severe ankylosing spondylitis.
MLL associates speciﬁcally with a subset of transcription- translocations specify a distinct gene expression proﬁle that ally active target genes generic lozol 1.5mg online heart attack sam tsui chrissy costanza. Potent inhibition alter the dynamic association of transcriptional regulators with of DOT1L as treatment for MLL-fusion leukemia discount lozol 2.5 mg visa hypertension 130100. Orphan drug is dependent on aberrant H3K79 methylation by DOT1L. Shapiro1,2 1Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Indianapolis, IN; and 2Department of Pediatrics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI In the past 50 years, the lifespan of an individual affected with severe hemophilia A has increased from a mere 20 years to near that of the general unaffected population. These advances are the result of and parallel advances in the development and manufacture of replacement therapies. We are now poised to witness further technologic leaps with the development of longer-lasting replacement therapies, some of which are likely to be approved for market shortly. Prophylactic therapy is currently the standard of care for young children with severe hemophilia A, yet requires frequent infusion to achieve optimal results. Longer-lasting products will transform our ability to deliver prophylaxis, especially in very young children. Longer-lasting replacement therapies will require changes to our current treatment plans including those for acute bleeding, prophylaxis, surgical interventions, and even perhaps immunotolerance induction. Ongoing observation will be required to determine the full clinical impact of this new class of products. Background placed and used, families may have difﬁculty with CVAD removal Before the advent of efﬁcient replacement therapy, the life expec- and transition to peripheral venous access. The ﬁrst recombi- periods of highest activity make these regimens less effective and nant factor VIII (rFVIII) concentrates were approved in the United compromise their cost-beneﬁt ratio. Now, up to detect compliance barriers, and development of agreed-upon 21 years later, a new class of rFVIII concentrates are emerging that solutions to overcome identiﬁed issues. Sequelae of hemophilia include musculoskeletal As children progress into adolescence, adherence is often further complications, development of inhibitory antibodies, and transmis- compromised. In addition, the use of prophylactic regimens fects, and death. Treatment regimens to achieve optimal bleed laxis in adults with severe hemophilia A is inconsistent and not suppression and prevention vary individually; some patients tolerate standardized. The advent of longer-acting products may increase the nadir levels 1%, whereas others require higher nadir levels to likelihood that affected adults choose this therapeutic option and achieve the desired therapeutic outcome. The use of bypassing agents is required for the Chief among the associated issues with current regimens is the need treatment of bleeding episodes, and the effective use of prophylaxis for adequate venous access and patient/family compliance. These is greatly diminished in this segment of the population. Much issues are magniﬁed in the very young pediatric population, in attention has been aimed at improved algorithms to predict inhibitor whom central venous access devices (CVADs) have been used to development and the development of regimens to modify the overcome technical difﬁculties. Although CVADs make prophy- individual’s immune response. The use of bypass- tions, most notably mechanical failure including fracture, dehis- ing agents and/or immunotolerance regimens is exceedingly costly. Once Products with decreased immunogenicity coupled with improved Hematology 2013 37 Figure 1. Removal of PEG in PEGylated proteins administered either IV or subcutaneously. The PEGylated protein is likely removed through the mechanisms speciﬁc to the protein, assuming that this takes place in the liver. After degradation of the likely more labile protein part, the PEG molecule remains mostly intact because PEG metabolism is limited. PEG molecules may be excreted mainly by the kidney, but to some extent also through bile. The clearance of hemophilia A, opportunities clearly remain to optimize and trans- PEG, once injected, especially on a regular basis as required for form therapy. To date, signiﬁcant A variety of methodologies have been applied to achieve longer- PEG-associated adverse events in preclinical studies or clinical lasting FVIII products. Initial attempts to combine FVIII with trials include a rare occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions. Ongoing these speciﬁc constructs were not effective in preclinical models and clinical trials with a wider patient base and long-term follow-up are thus did not enter the clinical setting. The greatest success to date required; however, analyses from currently licensed products using has been achieved with either site-speciﬁc or controlled covalent PEG indicate a reasonable safety margin given current yearly PEG exposure estimates. PEG protects FVIII against proteolytic degradation, antigenicity; the translation of this observation to impact of inhibitor 1 whereas fusion technology uses alternative recycling pathways to development would be signiﬁcant but awaits further clinical trials. These 2 general approaches will be described in greater Kaufman and Powell in this publication entitled “Molecular Ap- proaches for Improved Clotting Factors for Hemophilia. Fusion proteins to either albumin via a linker27 or to a monomeric Fc Technology of long-acting FVIII proteins fragment of immunoglobulin G 28 take advantage of natural path- 1 PEGylation may improve pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynam- ways to prolong FVIII T1⁄2; speciﬁcally the neonatal Fc-receptor, ics, and immunological proﬁles and is a well-established technology which results in pH-dependent recycling within endosomes to the that has current approved therapeutics in variety of disease states.
The ASH is an active participant in the Choosing Wisely project discount 1.5 mg lozol blood pressure up at night. Using an iterative process and an evidence-based method discount 2.5mg lozol amex prehypertension yahoo, ASH has identiﬁed 5 tests and treatments that in some circumstances are not well supported by evidence and which in certain cases involve a risk of adverse events and ﬁnancial costs with low likelihood of beneﬁt. The ASH Choosing Wisely recommendations focus on avoiding liberal RBC transfusion, avoiding thrombophilia testing in adults in the setting of transient major thrombosis risk factors, avoiding inferior vena cava ﬁlter usage except in speciﬁed circumstances, avoiding the use of plasma or prothrombin complex concentrate in the nonemergent reversal of vitamin K antagonists, and limiting routine computed tomography surveillance after curative-intent treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We recommend that clinicians carefully consider anticipated beneﬁts of the identiﬁed tests and treatments before performing them. Introduction crease costs, but can also in many cases increase patient satisfaction and quality of care. The ABIM Foundation is a nonproﬁt and, through a rigorous, evidence-based methodology outlined organization established by the ABIM that aims to foster medical below, has identiﬁed 5 tests and treatments that practicing hematolo- gists should carefully consider because, in the circumstances professionalism and quality improvement. The Choosing Wisely described, the risk of harm and/or cost of the speciﬁed interventions campaign challenges medical societies to identify 5 tests, proce- likely outweigh the anticipated beneﬁts. The The Choosing Wisely campaign aims to encourage dialogue ASH CWTF included 11 members with expertise in adult, pediatric, among patients, physicians, and the community at large about the malignant, benign, and laboratory hematology. The need for this dialogue is highlighted by the observation that at least 27% of investigations The ASH Choosing Wisely item selection process was anchored ordered on admission are avoidable, increasing to 63% on subse- by 5 core principles (Table 1). ASH chose to spent on healthcare is wasted and that diagnostic testing is explicitly identify harm to patients as a ﬁfth and preeminent guiding particularly inefﬁcient. Therefore, tests, procedures, or suggests that reducing unneeded investigations cannot only de- treatments that involved greater risk of harm to patients and had This article was selected by the Blood and Hematology 2013 American Society of Hematology Education Program editors for concurrent submission to Blood and Hematology 2013. This article is reprinted with permission from Blood. Guiding principles for the ASH Choosing Wisely campaign in order of relative importance 1. Harm Recommendations should aim to reduce potential harm to patients 2. Evidence Recommendations should be evidence based 3. Cost Recommendations should aim to decrease the cost of health care 4. Frequency Recommendations should target tests, procedures, or treatments that are common 5. Control Recommendations should target tests, procedures, or treatments within the clinical domain of hematology limited evidence of utility were prioritized over tests, procedures, or The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR; Issue 12, treatments that had limited evidence of utility, but lower risk of 2012) was included in searches for systematic reviews. ASH committees, as well as from members of the ASH Practice One reviewer (A. Reference lists of included guidelines 4 or studies were also reviewed for potentially relevant studies. Using nominal group technique, the ASH CWTF reduced the list of Disagreements regarding eligibility were resolved through consensus. Members of the ASH committees outlined above were asked to score each item on An evidence summary was prepared for each item. The ASH CWTF this short list from 1 to 10 with regard to priority for inclusion in ASH’s reviewed the evidence summaries and the supporting documents for ﬁnal Choosing Wisely list. The ASH CWTF used these scores and the the 10 items on the ﬁnal short list. Based on the evidence, the ASH guiding principles in Table 1 to reduce the list to 10 items. CWTF elected to make a minor modiﬁcation to one item on the A systematic review of the evidence was completed for each of the short list and a substantial modiﬁcation to a second item. As illustrated in Figure 1, a that the evidentiary base was accurate, the literature searches for hierarchical search strategy was used such that the search was these 2 items were redone using updated search strategies that abridged if recent (published subsequent to 2008), relevant, evidence- reﬂected the changes made to the items. Using nominal group technique4 informed by the evidence summaries and guided by the based guidelines were identiﬁed (see Appendix 1A for search terms). The search was restricted to English language publications principles in Table 1, the ASH CWTF selected 5 ﬁnal items plus 1 indexed in Medline (2008-2012 for guidelines; 1946 through alternate for the ASH Choosing Wisely Campaign. The ﬁnal items December 2012 for primary literature), the National Guideline were each reviewed by 2 or more external content experts for Clearinghouse, and the Canadian Medical Association Infobase. Hierarchical search strategy used in the systematic reviews completed to support the ASH Choosing Wisely project. CW indicates Choosing Wisely; SR, systematic review; and RCT, randomized controlled trial. Proposed Choosing Wisely recommendations that overlapped with prior campaigns Excluded from Recommended ASH Choosing Recommendation by Wisely campaign? Reference Do not use white cell stimulating factors for patients with 20% risk of febrile neutropenia ASCO Yes 32 Avoid transfusions for arbitrary hemoglobin thresholds in the absence of symptoms of SHM No 39 active coronary disease, heart failure, or stroke Do not perform repetitive CBC and chemistry testing in the face of clinical and laboratory SHM Yes 39 stability Do not image for suspected pulmonary embolism without moderate or high pre-test ACR Yes 40 probability ASCOindicatesAmericanSocietyofClinicalOncology;SHM,SocietyofHospitalMedicine;ACR,AmericanCollegeofRadiology;andCBC,completebloodcount.