By S. Chenor. Cleveland Institute of Music.
Medications ap- On the basis of this mounting evi- with multidisciplinary teams that proved for long-term weight loss and dence buy finpecia 1 mg cheap hair loss in men 60, several organizations and gov- understand and are experienced weight loss maintenance and their ernment agencies have recommended in the management of diabetes advantages and disadvantages are sum- expanding the indications for metabolic and gastrointestinal surgery buy finpecia 1 mg amex hair loss zomig. Please refer suggest that proﬁciency of the operating References to the American Diabetes Association con- surgeon is an important factor for deter- 1. Theemergingglobalepidemicof sensus report “Metabolic Surgery in the mining mortality, complications, reopera- type 1 diabetes. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 di- Diabetes Organizations” for a thorough shown to improve the metabolic proﬁles abetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. Beneﬁcial health effects of erosion of diabetes remission over may be cost-effective or even cost-saving modest weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Dis- ord 1992;16:397–415 time: 35–50% or more of patients who for patients with type 2 diabetes, but the 5. How- tions about the long-term effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes man- ever, the median disease-free period and safety of the procedures (62,63). With or without diabetes Metabolic surgery is costly and has as- sociation with decreased pancreas and liver relapse, the majority of patients who sociated risks. Diabetologia 2011;54:2506–2514 undergo surgery maintain substan- clude dumping syndrome (nausea, colic, 7. Very tial improvement of glycemic control diarrhea), vitamin and mineral deﬁcien- low-calorie diet mimics the early beneﬁcial ef- fect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on insulin sen- from baseline for at least 5 (44) to 15 cies, anemia, osteoporosis, and, rarely sitivity and b-cell Function in type 2 diabetic (31,32,43,45–47) years. Very-low-energy diet and better glycemic control are consis- lated complications occur with variable for type 2 diabetes: an underutilized therapy? J Diabetes Complications 2014;28:506–510 tently associated with higher rates of di- frequency depending on the type of pro- 9. Nat Chem Biol 2009;5:749–757 visceral fat area may also help to predict Postprandial hypoglycemia is most 10. Very low-calorie diet and 6 months of weight stability in type 2 diabetes: pathophysi- cially among Asian American patients exact prevalence of symptomatic hy- ological changes in responders and nonre- with type 2 diabetes, who typically have poglycemia is unknown. Diabetes Care 2016;39:808–815 more visceral fat compared with Cauca- it affected 11% of 450 patients who 11. Lancet 2004;363:157–163 surgery has been shown to confer addi- dergo metabolic surgery may be at in- 12. Health Study and the North Kohala Study [Ab- factors (29) and enhancements in qual- People with diabetes presenting for stract]. Cardiovascular effects Thesafetyofmetabolicsurgeryhas rates of depression and other major psy- of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 di- improved signiﬁcantly over the past chiatric disorders (69). N Engl J Med 2013;369:145–154 two decades, with continued reﬁne- abolic surgery with histories of alcohol 14. Obesity (Silver (laparoscopic surgery), enhanced train- sion, suicidal ideation, or other mental Spring) 2014;22:5–13 ing and credentialing, and involvement health conditions should therefore ﬁrst 15. Mortality rates be assessed by a mental health profes- management in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J with metabolic operations are typically sional with expertise in obesity manage- Clin Pract 2014;68:682–691 16. N Engl J Med 2007;357:741–752 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery or lifestyle and obesity in adults: a report of the American 34. Effects with type 2 diabetes: feasibility and 1-year re- tion Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The of bariatricsurgery oncancerincidencein obese sults of a randomized clinical trial. Perioperative safety in the Longi- placement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Bariatric surgery and long-term cardiovascular tudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery. Available from http://www Association between bariatric surgery and among individuals with severe obesity. Ann Surg 2010;251:399–405 gastrectomy vs laparoscopic gastric bypass: 2015;162:501–512 39. Obes Surg 2012; tal complication rates with bariatric surgery in J Clin Nutr 2014;99:14–23 22:677–684 Michigan. Lap band treatment for obesity: a systematic and clinical cidence and remission of type 2 diabetes in re- outcomes from 19,221 patients across centers review. A randomized, controlled trial of medical treatment in obese patients with type 59. A prospective random- Engl J Med 2015;373:11–22 single-centre, randomised controlled trial. Effect of duodenal- Lancet 2015;386:964–973 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for jejunal exclusion in a non-obese animal model 45. Effectof Care 2016;39:941–948 Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk fac- bariatric surgery vs medical treatment on type 2 62. Prev- pact of morbid obesity and factors affecting ac- abolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric alence of and risk factors for hypoglycemic cess to obesity surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009;17 symptoms after gastric bypass and sleeve gas- 2016;96:669–679 (Suppl.
It plays part in the metabolism of fatty acids order 1mg finpecia amex hair loss in men models, hence in the formation of myelin (the sheathing around the axons of nerve cells) 1 mg finpecia fast delivery hair loss cure histogen. The vitamin is involved also in the carbohydrate metabolism (stabilizes glutathione – a component of enzymes needed in carbohydrate metabolism). Signs and symptoms of deficiency Macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia Decreased white blood cells Angular stomatitis, glossitis Delusions, nerve problems, unsteady gait. Dietary measures Main source is animal foods – meat, liver, seafood, eggs, milk, and cheese. Note Animals or plants do not synthesize the vitamin – it is synthesized by bacteria in animals. Intramuscular injection: Initially 1mg, repeated 10 times at intervals of 2 – 3 days. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia Stomatitis, glossitis Diarrhea Neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly, encephalocele) 374 | P a g e Dietary measures Green leafy vegetables Legumes Liver, meat, fish, poultry Drug treatment Adults and children over one year A: Folic acid 5 mg (O) daily for 4 months, then maintenance dose of 5 mg every 1-7 days depending on underlying disease. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Scurvy (bleeding gums, dry skin, dry mouth, impaired wound healing). Note: Substantial vitamin C can be lost during food processing, preservation and preparation. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Rickets – a disease of bones in infants and children Osteomalacia in adults 375 | P a g e Prevention Exposure of the skin to sunshine (vitamin D is produced by the action of the sun on the skin) Vitamin D rich foods: wheat germ, fish, liver, egg yolk, organ meats, cheese, milk (breast milk other milks), butter, margarine, mayonnaise. It plays role in reproductive health (enhances fertility) and also in haemoglobin synthesis. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Leg cramps, Muscle weakness, Nerve problems and Hearing problems. Dietary measures Consumption of vegetable oils Whole grain cereals Drug treatment Adult C: Alpha tocopherol acetate 50 - 100mg daily until recovery Below 1 yr: 50mg until recovery 14. Secondary deficiency may be associated with malabsorption syndrome, liver cirrhosis and the use of Coumarin derivatives such as dicumarol, warfarin and other analogues. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Slow growth Loss of smell and taste Loss of appetite Diarrhoea Poor wound healing Skin lesions Dietary measures Zinc is present in most foods of animal and plant origins. Also phytates found in whole grain products and vegetables reduces the bioavailability of zinc. Treatment A: Zinc tablets 50mg 2 to 3 times daily until recovery Zinc supplementation- Refer to National Guideline Micronutrient supplementation 16. Kwashiorkor children have shown improved weight gain with selenium supplementation. In China selenium deficiency has led to “Kesharis disease” – a serious condition affecting heart muscle. Meats, seafoods, egg yolk and milk are good sources of selenium In cereals, selenium content depends on the concentration of the mineral in the soil Mushrooms and asparagus are rich sources. But highest concentrations are in the liver, brain, heart, kidneys and in the blood. Copper in the form of ceruloplesmin (a copper-protein complex in the blood plasma) is involved in various stages of iron nutrition. Copper enhances iron absorption and stimulates mobilization of iron from stores (in the liver and other tissues). Plays part in the conversion of ferrous iron to ferric (important during various stages of iron metabolism). Copper deficiency has been linked to anaemia in premature infants and in people with severe protein- energy malnutrition. Menke’s disease (a rare congenital condition) is caused by failure of copper absorption. Dietary measures Foods richest in copper are nuts, shellfish, liver, kidney, raisins and legumes. Many of the physiological functions of Mg are based on the mineral’s ability to interact with calcium, phosphate and carbonate salts. Magnesium catalyses many essential enzymatic reactions (glucose, fatty acid, amino acid metabolism), takes part in bone metabolism and protein synthesis. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Muscle spasms, cramps Tremors, seizures, coma Dietary measures Most foods contain adequate amounts of magnesium Animal foods: good source is dairy products, meats and poultry Vegetables: green vegetables (okra, broccoli), cucumber skin Fruits: especially avocado Cereals (whole grain) Legumes Seafood Drug treatment D: Magnesium sulphate 0. Fluorine enhances iron absorption (protects against anaemia) and enhances wound healing. Chronic ingestion of high concentrations (from natural high content in the area or environmental pollution) can lead to bone and tooth malformations. Drug treatment: In areas where drinking water is fluoridated and the floride content is above 0. S: Fluorine tabs: Under 6 yrs 250 micrograms daily Over 6 years : 500 micrograms to 1mg daily 22. Deficiencies occur across all population groups but women and children are highly vulnerable because of rapid growth and inadequate dietary practices.
The following of hypertension buy discount finpecia 1mg on-line hair loss and stress, the patient’s absolute recommendations align with the national guidelines for physical activity finpecia 1mg lowest price hair loss cure za, obesity, nutrition and alcohol. Importantly, long-term adherence to lifestyle improvement may delay or prevent the onset of hypertension, contribute to the reduction of blood pressure in patients with hypertension already on therapy and, in some cases, may reduce or abolish the need for antihypertensive therapy. Factor Assess Targets Assistance/resources Physical Patient’s ability to Accumulate 150–300 minutes of Australia’s physical activity and activity safely exercise moderate intensity activity or 75–150 sedentary behaviour guidelines minutes of vigorous activity each week. These patients physical activity and moderate to high levels of can be encouraged to start small and build up to the cardiorespiratory ftness provide protection against recommended amount49 as sudden vigorous physical hypertension and all-cause mortality in both normotensive activity in sedentary individuals has been associated with and hypertensive individuals. Patients with Australia’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour stable blood pressure can be referred to physical activity guidelines provide age-specifc recommendations relevant 50 programs run by accredited exercise professionals. For patients with hypertension, it is also Conduct a review of changes to physical activity at 3–6 recommended that training be postponed if resting blood 49 58 month intervals. It is important to judge a patients’ level of activity against these recommendations. For patients who do not engage in any regular physical activity, the important message Box 5. For adults >65 years, aim for • Some form of physical activity, no matter what their age, weight, health problems or abilities. Australia51 details the different thresholds at which waist circumference increases the risk of chronic disease and lists targets of <94 cm for males (<90 cm for Asian males) 5. Conversely, a reduction in blood pressure is seen in both normotensive Overweight 25–29. In fact, the risk of a coronary event sodium versus high-sodium intake on blood pressure from declines rapidly after quitting and within 2–6 years can be 167 trials. In a review of 167 studies, a low sodium intake 80 similar to that of a non-smoker. Structured advice from a was found to be associated with an average reduction in general practitioner has been shown to increase cessation systolic blood pressure of 5. Current literature remains 49, 83 the 5As approach (ask, assesss, advise, assist, arrange). It is currently recommended that total fat intake account for 20–35% of total energy intake • Respond positively to any incremental success. This evidence was largely used to pressure lowering in patients with signifcantly elevated support a treatment target of <140/90 mmHg in many blood pressures are well established. Differences exist in the for initiating drug therapy in patients with lower blood recommendations for the treatment for older persons, pressures with or without comorbidities has been which can be reviewed in Section 10. Here we review a meta-analysis that supports the initiation of drug therapy in patients with There is, however, consistent emerging evidence mild hypertension with and without co-morbidities, demonstrating beneft of treating to optimal blood pressure respectively. Patients >75 years of age benefted equally from being treated to a Earlier evidence suggested there is no beneft on target of <120 mmHg systolic. Treatment related adverse cardiovascular outcome or all-cause mortality by treating events were signifcantly increased in the intensively to lower (<130/80 mmHg) compared to standard (<140/90 treated patients with more frequent hypotension, mmHg) targets in patients with hypertension, across 95, 96 syncopal episodes, acute kidney injury and electrolyte a range of co-morbidities. Accordingly, this guideline recommends that all those • Aiming for a systolic blood pressure target of 120 mmHg may requiring antihypertensive drugs should be treated to a be inherently diffcult in patients with high baseline pressures target of <140/90 mmHg. In those at high risk in whom and where attaining 140 mmHg is already presenting a it is deemed safe on clinical grounds and in whom challenge. There is general support for diastolic This recommendation is subject to review as more blood pressure to be <90 mmHg. This blood pressure measurement technique generally yields lower blood pressure readings than those obtained by conventional clinic blood pressure and is more akin to out of offce measurements. Findings from circumstances, at least two antihypertensive drugs from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with different classes are required to control blood pressure. The recommendations in this guideline are based on evidence of two or more of these agents was associated with for drug classes, rather than individual drugs. Product increased incidence of adverse outcomes and no information sheets should always be checked. A large number of randomised controlled trials and A 2015 meta-analysis involving 55 blood pressure subsequent systematic reviews demonstrate that the lowering randomised controlled trials and 195,267 benefcial effects of antihypertensive drugs are due patients comparing drug classes with placebo, showed to blood pressure lowering per se and are largely that blood pressure lowering is accompanied by independent of drug class and mechanism of action. In head-to-head trials, they In patients with hypertension without co-morbidities, two are equally effective in blood pressure reduction and key systematic reviews support the fndings that all drug prevention of cardiovascular events overall,112 however classes are equally effective in the reduction of blood may have important differences in their effcacy in some pressure, but differ in their effcacy in preventing certain clinical conditions, such that they are not necessarily outcomes. There was no signifcant difference in the demonstrated to better prevent kidney failure in people effect of any of the 10 drug pair-wise comparisons on with advanced diabetic nephropathy115–117 but inferior in cardiovascular mortality. Calcium channel blockers were the prevention of coronary heart disease in patients with shown to reduce all-cause mortality and the incidence of hypertension. Once decided to treat, patients with uncomplicated hypertension should be Strong I treated to a target of <140/90 mmHg or lower if tolerated. The balance between effcacy and safety is less favourable for beta-blockers than other frst-line antihypertensive drugs. Thus beta-blockers should not be offered as Strong I a frst-line drug therapy for patients with hypertension not complicated by other conditions.
The rate is management support from lay health Lack of Health Insurance higher in some racial/ethnic minority coaches discount 1mg finpecia mastercard hair loss 101 promo codes, navigators discount finpecia 1 mg line hair loss 8 year old, or community Not having health insurance affects the groups including African American and health workers when available. A processes and outcomes of diabetes Latino populations, in low-income house- care. Individuals without insurance cov- holds,andinhomesheadedbyasin- The causes of health disparities are com- erage for blood glucose monitoring sup- gle mother. In a recent study of tritious food and less expensive energy- socioeconomic status, poor access to predominantly African American or His- and carbohydrate-dense processed foods, health care, education, and lack of health panic uninsured patients with diabetes, which may contribute to obesity. Therefore, in mental, political, and social conditions in by treatments to under 130 mmHg (50). Reasons activity, and smoking place on the health System-Level Interventions for the increased risk of hyperglycemia in- of patients with diabetes, efforts are Eliminating disparities will require indi- clude the steady consumption of inexpen- needed to address and change the societal vidualized, patient-centered, and cultur- sive carbohydrate-rich processed foods, determinants of these problems (41). Structured ﬁlling of diabetes medication prescrip- tween social and environmental factors interventions that are developed for di- tions, and anxiety/depression leading to and the development of obesity and verse populations and that integrate poor diabetes self-care behaviors. Hypo- type 2 diabetes and has issued a call for culture, language, ﬁnance, religion, and glycemia can occur as a result of inade- research that seeks to better understand literacy and numeracy skills positively quate or erratic carbohydrate consumption how these social determinants inﬂuence inﬂuence patient outcomes (51). All following administration of sulfonylureas behaviors and how the relationships be- providers and health care systems are orinsulin. StandardsforAmbulatory CaredMeasuring tients and the parents of patients with Healthcare Disparities (52). Ethnic, cultural, and sex differences may Community Support affect diabetes prevalence and out- Identiﬁcation or development of re- Treatment Options comes. Long-term tailored diabetes self-management interven- immediately before meals, thus obviating and recent progress in blood pressure levels tion for low-income Latinos: Latinos en Control. Beyond Health literacy explains racial disparities in di- For those needing insulin, short-acting comorbidity counts: how do comorbidity type abetes medication adherence. J Health Com- insulin analogs, preferably delivered by a and severity inﬂuence diabetes patients’ treat- mun 2011;16(Suppl. Di- tern Med 2007;22:1635–1640 abetes performance measures: current status consumption, whenever food becomes 5. While such insulin analogs Language barriers, physician-patient language 1651–1659 may becostly,many pharmaceuticalcom- concordance, and glycemic control among in- 22. J Gen Intern port systems on practitioner performance and Med 2011;26:170–176 patient outcomes: a systematic review. Chronic care model and ultra-long-acting insulin analog may be tes Care 2010;33:940–947 shared care in diabetes: randomized trial of an prescribed simply to prevent marked hy- 7. Therefore, it is important to con- 3-year follow-up of clinical and behavioral im- nitoring in veterans with type 2 diabetes: the provements following a multifaceted diabetes DiaTel randomized controlled trial. Collabo- Diabetes self-management education and sup- educational programs and materials in rative care for patients with depression and chronic port in type 2 diabetes: a joint position state- multiple languages with the speciﬁc illnesses. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2611–2620 ment of the American Diabetes Association, the 11. Risk of coronary artery disease in type 2 di- and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Di- diabetes awareness in people who can- abetes and the delivery of care consistent with abetes Care 2015;38:1372–1382 not easily read or write in English. How our current medical improving adherence to treatment recommenda- Homelessness often accompanies many care system fails people with diabetes: lack of tions in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treat- Effectiveness of quality improvement strategies ciencies, lack of insurance, cognitive ment intensiﬁcation and risk factor control: to- on the management of diabetes: a systematic dysfunction, and mental health issues. Lancet 2012;379: Therefore, providers who care for Med Care 2009;47:395–402 2252–2261 14. Effects homeless individuals should be well tensiﬁcation of antihyperglycemic therapy of care coordination on hospitalization, quality versed or have access to social workers among patients with incident diabetes: a Surveil- of care, and health care expenditures among to facilitate temporary housing for their lance Prevention and Management of Diabetes Medicare beneﬁciaries: 15 randomized trials. Ann Fam Med places to keep their diabetes supplies ogy and deﬁnitions of medication adherence and 2007;5:233–241 and refrigerator access to properly store persistence in research employing electronic da- 31. Shareddecision-making Twelve evidence-based principles for implement- [Internet], 2001. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:83–90 for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized con- in U. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1776– 2013;368:1613–1624 domized trial of a literacy-sensitive, culturally 1782 S10 Promoting Health and Reducing Disparities in Populations Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 35. Community health ambassadors: a model betes as risk factor for incident coronary heart 53. J Public Health tematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts lable from http://www. Curr Diab Rep 2013;13: striking the balance between participation and treatment, control and monitoring of diabetes?
The nurse/midwife employing such an aid in the practice of medication management is accountable for her/his actions buy generic finpecia 1 mg online hair loss on arms. She/he should be competent in undertaking this activity • The use of compliance aids is not supported in acute care settings order 1mg finpecia with visa hair loss zoloft, areas where the range and type of medications is extensive or changes frequently (e. References and resources should be readily accessible for the nurse/midwife to confirm prescribed medication in the compliance aid with identifiable drug information, e. These practices should be supported by locally devised medication protocols where appropriate. The nurse/midwife should monitor the patient/service-user, document the nursing/midwifery action and communicate her/his actions with other members of the health care team, consistent with the health service provider’s policies and the patient’s/service-user’s overall plan of care. The drugs are categorised into five schedules with different controls applicable to each category. The nurse/midwife manager (or acting manager) in charge of a ward, theatre or department may be supplied with a controlled drug, solely for the purpose of administration to patients/service-users in that ward, theatre, or department, on foot of a requisition issued by her/him in accordance with the directions of a medical practitioner. Supplies of controlled drugs for patients/service-users in private hospitals and private nursing homes should be obtained by way of a medical prescription as if the patients/service-users were in their own homes. Private hospital and private nursing home patients/service-users are considered to be in the same position as a patient/service-user in her/his own home. Private hospitals and private nursing homes may hold licenses under the Misuse of Drugs Acts, 1977 and 1984. These licenses legally permit the supply, distribution and control of scheduled controlled drugs for private hospitals and private nursing homes similar to the arrangements in use in institutions as detailed above. It is recommended that local health service providers should consider including requirements expected for the checking, preparation, administration or destruction of these drugs when establishing medication management policies. They should also consider whether these activities are to be witnessed and by whom (i. The nurse/midwife manager or her/his nurse/midwife designee should keep the keys of the controlled drugs storage on their person. In the community, individually prescribed medicinal products, including controlled scheduled drugs, are the property and responsibility of the individual patient/service-user. Unused or expired controlled drugs should be returned for destruction to the pharmacy from which they were dispensed. Standard There are specific requirements for this possession: • A written order is signed by the midwife and countersigned by a medical practitioner or registered nurse prescriber practising in her/his area The medication order must state: • The name and address of the midwife • The quantity to be supplied • The purpose for which it is required. A record must be kept in a book by the midwife of any supply of pethidine that she/he obtained and administered. The record must include: • The name and address of the person from whom the drug was obtained • The amount obtained • The form in which it was obtained. This book should be kept for a period of two years from the date on which the last entry was made. They should be stored in the appropriate environment as indicated on the label or packaging of the medicinal product or as advised by the pharmacist. Medicinal products should be stored separately from antiseptics, disinfectants and other cleaning products. Mobile trolleys and emergency boxes storing medicinal products should be locked and secure when not in use. Policies and procedures should be in place for: • Ordering medicinal products from the pharmacy • Checking delivery and inventory of medicinal products to the ward/unit and maintaining records • The immediate reporting and investigation of discrepancies in medicinal products’ stocks • The storage of medicinal products for self-administration by patients/service-users. Medication errors are defined as preventable events that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient/service-user harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional or patient/service-user. These events may be associated with professional practice, health care products, procedures and systems. They include prescribing, order communication, product labelling, packaging and nomenclature, compounding, dispensing, distribution, administration, education, monitoring and use (National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention, 1998). For the purposes of this document, the activity of supply is included in this definition. Additionally a "near miss" event or situation may also happen with medications, where the error does not reach the patient/service-user and no injury results (e. If a medication error has been identified, medical and nursing interventions should be implemented immediately to limit potential adverse effects/reactions. Supporting Guidance Health service provider management, and organisations outside of the traditional health care settings where nursing/midwifery care is provided, should support an open culture (non-punitive approach) for error and near miss reporting, while undertaking a comprehensive assessment of the circumstances of the error and, where appropriate, institute action plans to prevent/eradicate the contributing factors to the medication error. The prevention, detection and reduction of medication errors and near misses should occur in collaboration amongst the health care team, as errors may reflect a problem with the system and may involve other professions and departments. Continuous quality improvement programmes for monitoring medication errors and near misses should be in place within risk management systems of the organisation.
Several studies suggest that sufentanil not only is more potent than fentanyl but also is closer to a "complete anesthetic buy 1mg finpecia free shipping hair loss using wen products. It is found that sufentanil (5 mg/kg) produces lower mean arterial blood pressures than fentanyl (25 mg/kg) during induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery buy finpecia 1 mg on-line hair loss after surgery. It has been also shown that although sufentanil (15 mg/kg) attenuated the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation better than fentanyl (75 mg/kg), it impaired myocardial function and depressed systolic blood pressure more. Side effects include respiratory depression, which will manifest itself as a gradual slowing of breathing and increased intracranial pressure. Buprenorphine is a thebaine derivative, which is similar to morphine in structure but approximately 33 times as potent. Buprenorphine is a partial mu‐receptor agonist and also binds to delta and kappa receptors, but its activity at the latter two sites is relatively insignificant. The metabolites of buprenorphone, buprenorphone‐3‐glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine are significantly less potent and have lower affinities for the mu receptor. Their accumulation in patients with renal failure is unlikely to cause significant pharmacologic activity. Higher doses do not produce further respiratory depression and may actually result in increased ventilation (predominance of antagonistic actions). Nonetheless, at some doses respiratory depression is impressive after buprenorphine. Dopram should be administered if Narcan does not reverse the respiratory depression. Like the other agonist‐antagonist compounds, buprenorphine is not acceptable as a sole anesthetic, and its receptor kinetic profile restricts its usefulness if other mu‐receptor agonists are used concurrently. On the other hand, in large doses buprenorphine might be of value as an alternative to methadone for maintenance therapy in opiate addicts. Opioid withdrawal symptoms develop slowly (5 to 10 days) after buprenorphine is discontinued following chronic use. In contrast to other opioid compounds (antagonists, agonists, and agonist‐antagonists) buprenorphine produces minimal effects in methadone‐maintained opioid abusers. Naloxone Description: Narcan, a narcotic antagonist, is a synthetic congener of oxymorphone. Its duration of action is approximately 4 hours; therefore, it may need to be administered more than once. When using Narcan against Buprenex you may need to use 10X the normal dose Usage: To reverse the effects of possible overdose of narcotics. Note that Naloxone is not effective against respiratory depression due to non‐opioid drugs. Given prior to and following surgery for 48 hours, often in conjunction with other analgesics. Often it is convenient to use children’s Tylenol because of the smaller number of milligrams per tablet. Other Drugs Antibiotics Antibiotics are substances produced by various species of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes) that suppress the growth of other microorganisms and eventually may destroy them. However, common usage often extends the term antibiotics to include synthetic antibacterial agents, such as the sulfonamides and quinolones, which are not products of microbes. Hundreds of antibiotics have been identified, and many have been developed to the stage where they are of value in the therapy of infectious diseases. Antibiotics differ markedly in physical, chemical, and pharmacological properties; antibacterial spectra; and mechanisms of action. For the maintenance of implants Agents of the first category will only be always selected for use by the designated veterinarian. No person in the laboratory should ever administer antibiotics to the monkeys without previously consulting the veterinarian. Specific agents of the other two categories are routinely used for the maintenance of implants, or before and after the surgery. The following describes the properties, dosages, and types of administration of the antimicrobial drugs used in the lab: Ampicillin Description: Ampicillin is a semisynthetic penicillin derived from the basic penicillin nucleus, 6‐amino‐penicillanic acid. Ampicillin is not only bactericidal against the gram‐positive organisms usually susceptible to penicillin G, but also against the gram‐negative bacteria. It is, however, ineffective for organisms which produce penicillinase, including the penicillin G resistant strains of staphylococci. We use it for the treatment of skin and skin‐structure infections caused by beta‐lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, E. It can be also given for infections caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus, gonococcus. Ampicillin should be used if the susceptibility test shows sensitivity of the cultured pathogens to this drug. Bacitracin Ophthalmic Ointment Description: Bacitracin zinc (or polymyxin B sulfate) ophthalmic ointment is a sterile antimicrobial ointment for ophthalmic use. Each gram contains: bacitracin zinc equivalent to 500 bacitracin units, polymyxin B sulfate equivalent to 10,000 polymyxin B units, and white petrolatum.