By L. Kalesch. Rutgers University-Camden. 2018.
Aside from the usual pharmacological treatment buy generic augmentin 625mg online antibiotics osteomyelitis, psychoeducation has shown great promise in the management of schizophrenia order 375 mg augmentin with amex antibiotics for sinus infection bronchitis. The clear aim of the treatment of such disorders is not only to control the symptoms, but it is also to prevent new symptomatic acute phases, to bring the patient to comply with the prescribed treatment plan, to restore a certain social and working functioning and to reach a better quality of life. Psychoeducational approaches have been developed to increase patients’ and their carers’ knowledge of, and insight into, their illness and treatment. A review of more than 30 randomized clinical trials have shown that family psychoeducation reduces the rate of relapses, encourages recovery of patients as well as improves family dynamics among participant (McFarlane W. Another recent study also showed signifcant reduction in patient rehospitalization rates and improved compliance over a period of 2 years after patients and their families attended a psychoeducational program consisting 8 sessions (Pitschel- WalZ G et al, Mar 2006). Participants in the psychoeducation group families’ and patients’ functioning, families’ burden of care and the number and length of patients’ rehospitalization over the 12-month follow-up period, compared with the standard care group. Family psychoeducation is a method of working in partnership with families to impart current information about the illness and to help them develop coping skills for handling problems posed by mental illness in one member of the family. The goal is that practitioner, consumer, and family work together to support recovery. It respects and incorporates their individual, family, and cultural realities and perspectives. Summarized version of proposal: efectve implementaton of a structured psychoeducaton programme among caregivers of schizophrenia patents in the community. Used with permission from authors Increasingly, mental health facilities are feeling pressure to meet the demands of service and productivity. Mental health program leaders fnd they need to direct services that will satisfy these demands without sacrifcing the quality of care being offered. At the same time, program leaders are concerned about practitioners’ level of satisfaction. In the Cochrane analysis of Pekkala et al, 2002, such interventions were accompanied by a higher level of compliance, lower rate of relapse, and improved psychopathological status. Only a few studies have been carried out with Chinese or Asian populations, in which great importance is attached to intimate interpersonal relationships and interactions with family members (Li Z. The application of family psychoeducation in Malaysia has been rather limited and very recent. Healthy lifestyle – diet and exercise Following the initiation of this programme, there was encouraging results from both the client as well as their care-givers. Notably, there was an increase in the quality of life in both the client as well as their care-givers. Relapse rates were also lower as they were able to recognize the early warning signs of possible relapse (Ghaus Z. As this is a pioneering initiative, the researchers have decided to study the effectiveness of the structured psychoeducation programme among care-givers of schizophrenics in the community. Summarized version of proposal: efectve implementaton of a structured psychoeducaton programme among caregivers of schizophrenia patents in the community. Used with permission from authors The main aim of this study is to assess if a structured psychoeducation programme can be effectively implemented among schizophrenia patients in the community. The researchers aim to look at sustainability, will attempt to standardize the delivery of the psychoeducation programme and monitor defaulter and drop-out rates with a view to improve the health outcome for schizophrenics and their families. The researchers hope to be able to make recommendations with regards to a uniformed national psychoeducation programme for schizophrenia patients. Lack ofLack of motivationmotivation PoorPoor PoorPoor Lack of budgetLack of budget & Incentive& Incentive insightinsight knowledgeknowledge aboutabout aboutabout diseasedisease diseasedisease IncreasedIncreased Lack ofLack of burden ofburden of staffstaff workwork Lack ofLack of Defaulters/Defaulters/ InfrastructureInfrastructure dropoutdropout & Resources& Resources PoorPoor ratesrates attitudeattitude Can we effectivelyCan we effectively implement a structured psychoeducationimplement a structured psychoeducation Patient/ care-giver factorsPatient/ care-giver factors programme among caregivers ofprogramme among caregivers of Staff factorsStaff factors schizophrenia patients in theschizophrenia patients in the community? To determine if the use of a structured psychoeducation program will signifcantly: a. To make recommendations regarding the implementation of a structured psychoeducation program in the community. Summarized version of proposal: efectve implementaton of a structured psychoeducaton programme among caregivers of schizophrenia patents in the community. The intervention to be used is the introduction of a structured psycho education program. Specifc health staffs in the interventional group will be trained in the structured psycho education module, after which will administer the structured psycho education to the caregivers. The control group will be those caregivers of patients who follow the standard treatment without any structured intervention. Phase 2 Specifcally identifed health staff in the interventional group, from the respective clinics will be trained in the use of the modules of the structured psychoeducation (see Appendix). Summarized version of proposal: efectve implementaton of a structured psychoeducaton programme among caregivers of schizophrenia patents in the community. Used with permission from authors Phase 3 Respondents in the interventional group will be taken through the structured psychoeducational program. To ensure the modules were taught adequately and in a standard manner, all the staff involved in giving the psychoeducation program will be required to complete a checklist. The patients in the interventional groups will be given the psychoeducation mainly in the clinics. The teaching materials that will be provided to the trainers during the training sessions will be used during the teaching.
A new onset of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or the developmentofsyn- cope in patients treatedwith digoxin shouldprompt measurement of a digoxin level discount augmentin 625mg on line antibiotic 3 days uti. Acute cardiac failure can leaddirectly to arrhythmias by causing abnor- mal automaticity (i buy 625mg augmentin amex bacterial pneumonia. Hypotensioncancause arrhythmias by the same mechanism or by causing reﬂex sympathetic stimulation. Thus, antiarrhythmic drugs that decrease the inotropic state of the heart (beta blockers, calcium blockers, disopyramide, or ﬂecainide) or drugs that cause vasodila- tion (calcium blockers, some beta blockers, and the intravenousad- ministration of quinidine, procainamide, bretylium,oramiodarone) can occasionally lead to cardiac arrhythmias. Proarrhythmia in perspective Although the potential for antiarrhythmic drugstoworsencardiac arrhythmias has been known for decades, the potential magnitude of the problem has been recognized for only a few years. The hypothesis of the study was that suppressing these patients’ ambient ectopy would improve their mortality. Instead, the results showed that patients treatedwith encainideorﬂecainidehad afourfoldin- crease in the risk of suddendeath (patients treatedwith moricizine showednobeneﬁt fromdrug treatment) and had asigniﬁcant in- crease in overall mortality. The increase in risk for fatal arrhythmias was not limited to the ﬁrst fewdays or weeks of drug therapybut persisted throughout the follow-up period. Other trials have suggested, for instance, that uses of both quinidine for atrial ﬁbrillation and Class I drugs in survivors of myocardial infarction have produced signiﬁcant increases in mortality. As a result, most electrophysiologists have become convinced that the proarrhythmic effects of Class I drugsoutweigh the antiarrhyth- mic effects, at least in patients with underlying heart disease. Using antiar- rhythmic drugsalways involves the risk of making heart rhythm worse instead of better. One shouldprescribe these drugsonly if it is necessary for prolongation of survival or for amelioration of signiﬁcantsymptoms. Most impor- tantly, whenever one is compelled to prescribe antiarrhythmic drugs, one should feel obligated to do whatever possible to minimize the risk of symptomatic or life-threatening proarrhythmia. Since reentrantventricular tachycardia(and therefore drug- inducedworsening of reentry) generally is seen only in the presence of underlying cardiacdisease, one must be especially cautious about using antiarrhythmic drugs in patients with heart disease. When prescribing antiarrhythmic drugs in this setting, it is importantto assure that serum electrolytes (especially potassium) are kept well within the normal range. In addition, cardiac function should be optimized because hemodynamic compromise canworsen arrhyth- mias. Not only 124 Chapter 9 does ischemia itself precipitate arrhythmias, but ischemia also ren- ders drug-inducedproarrhythmia more likely. Torsades de pointes probably occurs in individuals who are genet- ically pronetodevelop afterdepolarizations whenever their cardiac actionpotentials become prolonged. Patients started on therapy with such drugs should be placed on a cardiacmonitor for several days, be- cause torsades de pointes is most often ﬁrst seenduring the initial 3 or 4days of therapy (although it can occuranytime). Serum potassium levels should also be watched carefully;infact, one shoulduse torsades de pointes producing agents with trepidationinpatients requiring potassium-wasting diuretics. Drug–drug interactions Antiarrhythmic drugs seem to produce more than their share of interactions with other drugs. Interactions generally are related to competitionwith other drugs for serum proteinsonwhichtobind or to drug-inducedchanges in hepatic metabolism. The major in- teractions between antiarrhythmic drugsand other agents (see the discussionsoftheindividual antiarrhythmic drugs) are summarized in Table 9. It is relatively rare for antiarrhythmic drugstosignif- icantly interfere with pacemakers. Two major problems caused by antiarrhythmic drugs are that they canchange the en- ergy required for successful deﬁbrillation and they canchange the characteristics of the arrhythmiabeing treated. The effects of various drugsondeﬁbrillation energy requirements are summarized in Table 9. In thisﬁnal sec- tion, that informationisapplied to the use of antiarrhythmic drugs in the treatmentofspeciﬁccardiac arrhythmias. Chapter 10 reviews some basic principles that should be kept in mind whenusing an- tiarrhythmic drugs. On the basisofthegenerally limited efﬁcacyofantiarrhythmic drugsaswell as their inherent propensity to cause serious problems, the ﬁrst principle should be completely self-evident;namely, one should avoid using antiarrhythmic drugs whenever possible. Thus, when one has decided to prescribe an antiarrhythmic drug, the ﬁnal step before actually writing the order should be to ask, “Does this patient really need this drug? Before prescribing an antiarrhythmic drug, the physician should be certain that the arrhythmia meets one of these two conditions. The second basic principle istokeep the goal of treatment clearly in mind and to tailor the aggressiveness of one’s therapyaccordingly. If one is treating an arrhythmiatoprevent death or permanent in- jury, for instance, a relatively aggressive approach may be appropri- ate and necessary. In theory, if the object istospare life and limb, one should err on the side of efﬁcacy, perhaps willingly accepting the risk of certain drug toxicities. Inpractice, however, as we will see in Chapters 11 and 12, there are relatively fewinstances today where oneought to rely primarily on antiarrhythmic drugs to treat arrhythmias that threaten life and limb. In these cases, one generally shoulduse a stepwise strategy, beginning with milder, less risky forms of treatment, and carefully reassessing the risk-to-beneﬁt ratio before each potential escalation of therapy.
Some types of therapy you may want to consider are gestalt Tip #3: therapy cheap 375 mg augmentin visa bacteria 90, family constellation therapy order 375mg augmentin fast delivery antibiotic wipes, and hypnosis. Get It Out Tip #4: In Chapter 5, I also talked about how destructive repressed Manage the Stress You Do Have emotions are. So no matter what kind of emotional stress you’re under, it’s Stress is not all bad. So, after you’ve eliminated all the stress you can, you must For the more severe cases of emotional trauma, such as decide how to manage what remains. It releases your body’s natural feel-good endorphins, technique is to write down the pent-up emotions you’re gives you energy, relieves pain, burns calories (potentially feeling (the most common one is anger). There’s Use a pen and notepad, your computer, or even a voice really no end to the benefits of this powerful coping recorder to get your emotions out. First thing feel…,” and other similar expressions to encourage emotional in the morning, as a break at midday (a lunchtime walk can responses. Typically, these kinds of exercises help clear your do wonders), as a bridge between work and home life— head and release the pressure that emotions can create in the however it works best for you. For serious traumas that may have occurred in the past but Resist the impulse to say, “Well, I can exercise tomorrow. Take the appointments you make could be causing your back pain, if you’ve experienced with yourself just as seriously. Taking 10–20 minutes a day to be still, breathe deep, and center your thoughts quiets both the mind and the body, reducing all the stress-induced changes that are so bad for your health. Many meditation techniques really emphasize slow, deep breathing—which is great for getting more oxygen into your muscle cells, reducing the likelihood of trigger points. It’s also the exact opposite of the fast and shallow breathing pattern we typically use when we’re stressed. This ancient form of stretching and exercising trains you to focus on the breath while moving your body into a myriad of poses that help you gain flexibility and strength. Many of my clients swear by yoga as a way to help them relax, reduce back pain, and sleep better. If you’re going through a particularly rough time and you can’t change the circumstances, you may need a more powerful form of stress relief, such as hypnosis. I’m not suggesting swinging pocket watches or dancing like a chicken—the sorts of things we see on television or in entertainment shows. The type of hypnosis I’m talking about is like a form of deep meditation that can relieve pain by reaching the depths of your unconscious mind. Maggie Philips, guides you through 10 exercises that help you learn to reverse the course of chronic pain. There are a myriad of ways to cope with stress and to process the difficult emotions in your life. What you must not do is ignore your feelings, muddle through them, or think you’re strong enough to just stuff them away. If you want to get rid of back pain, experiment with Taking 10–20 minutes a day to be still, breathe deep, and coping techniques, find the ones that work for you, and center your thoughts quiets both the mind and the body, implement them in your life. If you want to feel better, it’s reducing all the stress-induced changes that are so bad for imperative! Many meditation techniques really emphasize Here are some online resources you may want to explore: slow, deep breathing—which is great for getting more oxygen into your muscle cells, reducing the likelihood of trigger • www. Many of my clients swear by yoga as a way to help them relax, reduce back pain, and sleep better. If you’re going through a particularly rough time and you can’t change the circumstances, you may need a more powerful form of stress relief, such as hypnosis. I’m not suggesting swinging pocket watches or dancing like a chicken—the sorts of things we see on television or in entertainment shows. The type of hypnosis I’m talking about is like a form of deep meditation that can relieve pain by reaching the depths of your unconscious mind. Maggie Philips, guides you through 10 exercises that help you learn to reverse the course of chronic pain. There are a myriad of ways to cope with stress and to process the difficult emotions in your life. What you must not do is ignore your feelings, muddle through them, or think you’re strong enough to just stuff them away. But I do want to emphasize just how important your nutrition is to your ability to live without pain. When we drink more, we re-inflate those discs after they’ve been depleted throughout the day. Water helps eliminate toxins from the body and promotes more efficient kidney function. Flushing toxins out on a regular basis can help prevent trigger points from forming and reduce the severity of those already present in the muscle tissues. It fills the stomach, which can deter us from eating too much, and helps to keep our energy levels high. The “eight glasses a day” rule is a good general guideline, but remember, everyone is different.
Perhaps she missed her appointment because of embarrassment over not being able to stop smoking buy cheap augmentin 625 mg online treatment for dogs eating poop. The thymus is a small gland and the fluke is a large parasite; it is like having an elephant in the kitchen augmentin 625mg online iv antibiotics for sinus infection. Now she has these problems: 1) Chronic respiratory problems (a bout of bronchitis every year). She was put on the parasite killing recipe immediately while the kidney cleansing waited and dental work was to be scheduled. She did not bring a blood test but she will bring a copy since she had a recent one done. So I hope she abides by the meat-avoidance rule and the cosmetics and beverage avoidance rules. Note that only the pancreatic fluke was multiplying in her, although she must be picking up the others at the same time - from rare meat. Only the pancreatic fluke survived and is multiplying - because of the solvents in the pancreas! Her clinical doctor said that present che- motherapy will not cure, but only “hold it back” for a while. Summary: This woman was given a minimal test at our office, just to remove her cancer. Hopefully, she has removed the propanol from her lifestyle and carried out the parasite program. Lenora Wilson Colon Cancer Lenora Wilson is a 55 year old woman whose main problem, she said, was ovarian cancer. Instead she went to Ann Wigmore Foundation for 2 weeks and changed diet to vegetarian. But it came back recently; her doctor used the cancer marker Ca 125 to monitor it. Two years later a different doctor found it quite abnormal, and she got cold knife conization. Calcium slightly low Drink 2% milk, 3 glasses/day; magne- sium (300 mg) 1/day; Vit D (by pre- scription from dentist 50,000) 1- 2/week forever. Summary: Mary came from several states away and had only 16 days to accomplish her goal: to avoid a hysterectomy. We hope she will eventually do a liver cleanse to lose the weight she suddenly gained. I was out of wormwood so I started her on quassia (see Recipes), rather than have her merely wait until it arrived. She will switch to wormwood and the usual parasite killing program now that it has arrived. Summary: This woman did not come in for health problems but only because she was worried about cancer, since her husband had died of it. Indeed, her intuition was right, but very quickly she removed all of the cancer, even though she substituted quassia for our regular parasite recipe. She has probably not returned for financial reasons (she lives on Social Security). Her good attitude will probably bring her back quickly if she has a health problem. The intestinal fluke was in the liver as usual, with a stage present in the breast. The first priority was to eliminate the cancer, although her purpose in coming to the office was her high blood pressure and ringing in the head. Hopefully, she will return free of her cancer, so we can pursue her other health prob- lems. Three weeks later He has had top right wisdom tooth pulled (#1), it had an abscess. His blood test sug- gested parasites (high platelet count) and Fasciolopsis was found. He acted quickly to clear up his Staph aureus infection by having a wisdom tooth pulled. Later we noticed a common lung infection, Pneumocystis, but he still could not stop smoking. At the last visit he had picked up the intestinal fluke again, probably from eating rare meat but he had no solvents in his body. This explains why the parasite stayed in the intestine and did not move to his liver or lungs. This bout with lung cancer was missed by his medical doctor whom he continues to see regularly. Perhaps if his medical doctor had also seen the cancer, he would have quit smoking. He and his wife have been neglectful of the parasite program and other restrictions.
Whitlock Mon 5/31 Holiday Tues 6/1 9 – 9:50 M112 Fetal Circulation & Congenital Heart Disease D augmentin 625 mg on-line antibiotics vs probiotics. Please note: the B&L book is available for purchase at the Stanford University Bookstore buy cheap augmentin 375 mg on line broad spectrum antibiotics for sinus infection. Students whose last name begins with the letter A to K are scheduled to attend the treadmill session on May 15. Students whose last name begins with the letter L to Z are scheduled to attend the treadmill session on May 22. If you are unable to attend your scheduled session, please find someone in the other session to switch places with you. To appreciate the plasticity of the heart arising from the regulation of contractile protein genes 3. To appreciate the significance of those genes in the pathophysiology of hypertrophy of the heart due to either familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or hypertension. Pathological change in the heart consists of focally increased cardiac mass (regional hypertrophy) and myofibrillar disarray within varied anatomic regions of the heart. In the extreme case, the mitral valve will touch the septum, causing systolic anterior motion and creating an obstruction. Here we briefly review the structure of the striated muscle cells in cardiac and skeletal muscle. The thin filaments are attached to the z- line and these filaments contain the actin. In the center of the sarcomere is the A-band which is formed by the thick filaments containing myosin that extend to either side of the M-line. The contraction of the muscle is produced by the movement of the myosin along the actin filaments. This draws the thin filaments in towards the center of the sarcomere and thereby shortens the distance from Z-line to Z-line. The overlap of actin and myosin filaments will be a short stretch at rest but in a contracted muscle, the Z-line may be pulled in almost to the edge of the thick filaments. The diagram shows a more detailed view of the contractile proteins that compose the sarcomere. The force generated and the velocity of contraction are dependent upon the number as well as the isoform of the contractile proteins. Each of the contractile proteins that compose a sarcomere is a member of a family of isoforms of that protein. Important differences in isoforms produce significantly different contractile properties for skeletal muscle vs. Smooth muscle exhibits even greater differences in organization and physiological properties, to be discussed in a later lecture. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, the thin filament proteins are actin, tropomyosin, and troponin (troponin T,C, or I). Each thin filament is attached to the Z-line material ( actinin) of the sarcomere. The heart of the thin filament is two strands of filamentous actin that coil about one another. The troponin- tropomyosin complex is associated with the thin filament and makes the sarcomere a calcium sensitive contractile structure. This complex regulates the interaction between the heads of the myosin molecule of the thick filament and the adjacent thin filament. The tropomyosin is envisaged as lying along the actin filament, blocking the myosin binding sites. Ca2+ binding to troponin C causes a conformational change in the rest of the troponin complex (I, C and T) and this in turn moves the tropomyosin aside and thereby activates the thin filament for contraction. There are some significant distinctions between thin-filament based regulation of Ca2+ sensitivity in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac TnC has one less functional Ca2+ binding site than skeletal TnC, making the Ca2+ regulation more graded. In the case of cardiac muscle, the input output relation of log [free Ca2+] vs tension rises steeply above 0. The Ca2+ sensitivity in heart can be regulated by TnI phosphorylation, which decreases the affinity of TnC for Ca2+, thereby increasing the rate of cardiac muscle relaxation. This relative newcomer to the field is proving interesting as a likely contributor to the elasticity of the muscle. The importance of elasticity will become clearer later in the course, when we discuss the mechanical properties of muscle. Titin is an enormous (3 mega-daltons), filamentous protein that spans half the length sarcomere and interacts with both the actin thin filament and myosin thick filament.
Capacitors only take part in the flow of electricity when they are charged and discharged purchase augmentin 625mg online antibiotic nasal spray for sinusitis. Tapping the terminal starts and stops the voltage so capacitors charge and discharge buy augmentin 625 mg visa antibiotics metronidazole (flagyl). The faster you tap, the greater the frequency of current pulses and the lower this kind of resistance becomes. Remember to take an intermission of twenty minutes and then repeat to avoid catching new viruses. Wrap each handhold with 9 volt battery one layer of wet paper 2 short (12”) alligator clip leads (from towel. Place each on a any electronics shop) 2 copper pipes, ¾” diameter, 4” long non-conductive surface, (from a hardware store) like a plastic bag. Connect the positive battery terminal to one handhold and the negative terminal to the other handhold using alligator clip leads. When you get tired pick up the left handhold with your left hand and tap with your right hand. Connect positive termi- nals of the batteries to each other, and the negatives also. Everything liv- ing on you or in you, not just to perch, but to take its food from you is a parasite. But in some way the big worms need to be distinguished from the medium-sized amoebae, the even smaller bacteria and the smallest of all—viruses. Roundworms are round like earthworms even though they may be as thin as hairs (threadworms, filaria) or micro- scopically small (like Trichinella). They have a way to attach themselves sometimes with the head (scolex) like tapeworms, sometimes with a special sucker like flukes. Worms Flatworms Roundworms Tapeworms Flukes Threadworms Pinworms Hookworms Worm parasites go through stages of development that can look very, very different from the adult. The favorite organ for Dirofilaria (dog heartworm) is the heart (even human heart). My tests show Dirofilaria can live in other organs, too, if they are sufficiently polluted with solvents, metals and other toxins. If you are a meat eater, you could eat such a cyst if it happens to be lodged in the meat you are eating! The little larva is swallowed and tries to attach itself to your intestine with its head. They come out of their metacercarial cyst as a small adult and quickly attach themselves to the intestine with a sucker. Four common flukes are: human intestinal fluke, human liver fluke, sheep liver fluke, pancreatic fluke of cattle. Has cilia, can swim vigorously and must find intermediate snail host in one to two hours or may be too exhausted to in- vade. Those are "mother" redia, and each one bears "daughter" redia for up to 8 months, all still inside the snail, and living on the fluids in the lymphatic spaces. If the snail is feeding on a plant, cercaria can latch onto plant with sucker mouth and start to encyst (form a "cocoon") within minutes. But as you eat the plant it is stuck to, the least pressure will break it, leaving the cyst in the mouth. The "almost unbreakable" inner cyst wall protects it from chewing, and the keratin-like coat prevents digestion by stomach juices. However when it reaches the duodenum, contact with intestinal juices dissolves away the cyst-wall and frees it. It then fastens itself to the intestinal lining and begins to develop into an adult. Note that the adult is the only stage that “normally” lives in the human (and then only in the intestine). Fasciolopsis depends on a snail, called a secondary host, for part of its life cycle. If propyl alcohol is the solvent, the intestinal fluke is invited to use another organ as a secondary host—this organ will become cancerous. If xylene (or toluene) are the solvents, I typically see any of four flukes using the brain as a secondary host. I call the diseases caused by fluke stages in inappropriate locations Fluke Disease; it is discussed in more detail later (page 249). Pollutants can invade your body via the air you breath, the foods and beverages you eat, and the products you put on your skin. The one who did not assumes the cream is not harmful to them…that they are like a bank vault, impreg- nable to that product. A better assumption is that the face cream is somewhat toxic, as evidenced by the rash that can develop, and they escaped the rash only because they had a stronger im- mune system. The immune system is like money, paid out of the bank vault, for every toxic invasion.
All these impairments show not only a loss of memory but also an inability to link (associate) the activity of different cortical functions and areas best 625 mg augmentin antibiotics and wine. Since the fibres that normally link the areas arise from glutamate-releasing pyramidal cells generic augmentin 625 mg mastercard antibiotics used to treat mrsa, their degeneration would implicate some loss of glutamate. They are tests of memory only in so far as memory is an essential part of learning which may be defined as the process by which an experience is somehow incorporated into the brain so that it can be retrieved. Animal tests are, of course, very basic but human memory can be much more complex since we can memorise occurences, events and impressions that do not actually require active accquisition or learning. Length of memory can be evaluated by varying the time between the initial learning and the subsequent tests. The tests generally involve some form of maze but the simplest is the passive avoidance test. In this the animal learns that in a certain environment it will be punished with an electric shock for some particular action, like stepping onto a special part of the floor of the test chamber. The test of memory is how long the rat avoids (remains passive to) making the movement that will initiate the shock. Using a maze in its simplest T shape, the animal is placed at the base of the vertical arm and a food reward at the end of one of the horizontal arms. Memory is assessed by the time taken for a food-deprived animal to reach the reward and the number of false arm entries. This simple system can be made more complex by introducing many more arms and branches but the principle is the same. In a radial maze a number of arms of equal length radiate from a central point, where the animal is placed. Initially food is placed at the end of each arm and the rat is expected to learn that fact by exploring and entering each arm. The test of memory is to see whether on re-exposure to the maze the rat remembers only to enter an arm not previously visited and so still containing food. A small platform, large enough to take the rat, is placed in the water with its top about 1. When placed in the water the rat finds and escapes to the platform, the position of which is apparently learnt by reference to peripheral visual markers. In this example rats were trained daily to find a platform just submerged below water in a circular (150 cm) glass tank painted black and the time taken to reach it recorded. Young (4-month) saline-treated rats (o) quickly learnt and from day 6 consistently swam to the platform in less than 10 s. By contrast, aged (22-month) rats (&) took significantly longer to acquire the task and by day 10 were still taking about 30 s. In experimental studies in both humans and animals they disrupt both the acquisition and the performance of learned behaviour. It is by no means certain, however, that the memory defects induced by antimuscarinics are identical to those seen in AzD. Any attempt to answer that question has to follow some consideration of how memory is thought to be processed. Many neuroscientists believe that memory is achieved by changes in the strength of synaptic connections (activation) between neurons and that increases in such synaptic activity somehow reinforce the pattern of neuronal activity during the memorising of an event so that it can be more easily restored later. This is not because it is a site of major degeneration in AzD, that finding can only be used to account for the memory loss if memory is known to be dependent on the hippocampus, but because lesions of that region are known to impair memory. Case reports in the medical literature are rightly mistrusted but few people have felt inclined to disregard the evidence presented by one 27-year-old male mechanic who underwent bilateral hippocampal removal for intractable epilepsy in Montreal in 1953. While that condition was improved the operation has not been repeated because memory loss was almost total, so while he appeared to behave reasonably normally (and still does), he cannot remember where he lives, what he has just eaten or the person he met a few minutes previously. Long-term potentiation can be defined as the increased effectiveness (potentiation) of synaptic transmission which may last for hours (possibly days) and is triggered experi- mentally by a brief burst of high-frequency stimulation of presynaptic inputs so that the response to any following input is much greater than normal. It was first demonstrated in vivo (Bliss and Loma 1973) but much studied in vitro. There is considerable debate as to whether the potentiation is of pre- or postsynaptic origin, or both, and while neurons can discharge spontaneously at an appropriate tetanic frequency (e. Removal of the posterior pituitary in rats shortens retention of a conditioned avoidance response, an effect which can be overcome by the administration of vasopressin. Variable but generally weak positive effects on cognition have been seen with this peptide in humans. Opioids tend to impair and their antagonists improve memory in animals (see McGough, Introlni-Collison and Castellano 1993). Increased synthesis This requires the provision of the precursor choline which is often given as lecithin (phosphatidyl choline), a natural source of choline found in many foods such as eggs and fish. Brain penetration is modest but uptake into cholinergic nerve terminals is through a sodium-dependent high-affinity system that is normally adequately supplied and possibly saturated with choline. Whether choline could reverse the choline leakage and resulting autocannibalism (see above) of cholinergic neurons is not known. Blocking its activity with various anticholinesterases has been widely investigated and some improvement in memory noted. Such studies have invariably used reversible inhibition because of the toxicity associated with long-term irreversible inhibition of the enzyme.